Shortpouch Pygmy Pipehorse Acentronura tentaculata Günther 1870
[CAAB 37 282035]
Distribution Map see an interactive map here (new window)
This small, drab-coloured pipehorse is very well camouflaged in silty environments. Although is has a prehensile tail like a seahorse, the Shortpouch Pygmy Pipehorse does not have an angled head and it swims horizontally.
Distribution, ecology and habitat:
Known from the tropical Indo-West Pacific, from East Africa, Madagascar, the Red Sea, Persian Gulf to Torres Strait and the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. The Shortpouch Pygmy Pipehorse lives near reefs, in shallow protected coastal areas. It is usually found in sandy or silty areas among sparse seagrass beds and algae covered rocks at 1-20 m.
Reaches 63 mm TL
Food and feeding:
Preys on small invertebrates.
Reproduction and early life history:
Reproduction: Ovoviviparous (gives birth to live young). Males brood the eggs in an enclosed pouch on the underside of the body.
Eggs: Not described.
Larvae: Pelagic and morphologically similar to the adults at birth.
Meristics: D 14-16; P 14-16; Total rings 51-56; Trunk rings 12; Tail rings 39-44.
Head and body: The head is in line with body rather than being bent at an angle like a seahorse. The frontal and orbital ridges are somewhat elevated. The trunk is deep and the tail prehensile like a seahorse.
The body in adults usually has many long dermal flaps and tentacles.
Fins: Caudal fin absent.
Variable in coloration and often a mottled dark greenish brown with blackish dermal flaps.
Australian Government Legislation: Acentronura tentaculata is a listed Marine species under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act 1999 Marine Species).
Individuals are usually seen in pairs and it is thought that they may form a monogamous relationship.
Other common names:
Dwarf Pipehorse, Northern Little Pipehorse, Short-pouch Pygmy Pipehorse.
Acentronura tentaculata Günther 1870, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus. 8: 516, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea.
Acentronura is from the Greek a (without), kentron (sting) and oura (tail). The specific name tentaculata is from the Latin tentaculum (feeler, holdfast) in reference to the long dermal tentacles.
Dawson, C.E. 1985. Indo-Pacific Pipefishes (Red Sea to the Americas). Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, Ocean Springs, Mississippi. 230 pp.
Dawson, C.E. 1986. Syngnathidae. p. 445-458. In Smith M.M. & P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' Sea Fishes. J.L.B. Smith Inst. Ichthology, Grahamstown, SA.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (2008). Acentronura tentaculata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed 2008-04-15@09:44:40.
Günther, A. 1870. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. Cat. Fishes 8: 1-549.
Hoese, D.F., D.J. Bray, J.R. Paxton & G.R. Allen. 2006. Fishes. In Beesley PL & Wells A (eds.) Zoological catalogue of Australia. Volume 35, Part 2. ABRS & CSIRO Publishing, Australia.
Kuiter, R.H. 2000. Seahorses, Pipefishes and their Relatives. TMC Publishing, Chorleywood, UK, 240 pp.
Kuiter R.H. 1996. Guide to Sea Fishes of Australia. New Holland Publishers Ltd. Sydney, 433 pp.
Kuiter, R.H. & T. Tonozuka. 2001. Pictorial guide to Indonesian reef fishes. Part 1. Eels - Snappers, Muraenidae - Lutjanidae. Zoonetics, Australia. 302 pp.
Pogonoski, J.J., D.A. Pollard & J.R. Paxton. 2002. Conservation Overview and Action Plan for Australian Threatened and Potentially Threatened Marine and Estuarine Fishes. Environment Australia, Canberra. 375 pp.
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen & R. Steene. 1997. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. 2nd Edn. Crawford House Press, Bathurst, 557 pp.
Citing this page:
Thompson, Vanessa J. & Dianne J. Bray (2009). Shortpouch Pygmy Pipehorse Acentronura tentaculata
Accessed 21 May 2013. http://foa.webboy.net/species/Acentronura/tentaculata in Fishes of Australia http://foa.webboy.net/